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  • German Government Procurement Policy

    Procurement policy for wood and wood products only from verifiably legal and SMF.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    German Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection,

    Food and Agriculture

    +49 (030) 200 60 www.bmelv.de

    Traceability

    Accepts FSC and PEFC certificates although the systems can be excluded if the complete traceability of the product cannot be guaranteed.

    Information Accuracy

    Accepts FSC and PEFC as guarantee that wood and wood products certified under these systems come from verifiable legal origin and are produced under SFM.

    Legality

    Requires that wood come from verifiable legal forest management, initially as verified by FSC and PEFC.

    SFM

    Requires that wood-based products be harvested from verifiable legal and sustainably managed forest operations. Certificates issued from FSC and PEFC are recognized as guarantees of SFM, but the systems can be excluded if sustainable management cannot be guaranteed.

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  • Timber Trade Action Plan

    A project aimed to reduce trade in illegal timber by helping members of European timber trade federations to work towards legality verification of their timber and wood products, and to implement robust chain of custody systems. TTAP is a private-sector initiative created by a number of European timber trade federations, and it is being implemented by The Forest Trust. TTAP is funded by the European Commission and its European partner timber trade federations.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    The Forest Trust

    +41 (0) 22 367 9442www.tft-forests.org/

    Traceability

    Provides training, advice and financial support to companies aiming at the establishment of robust chain of custody systems that allow them to track their wood from the forests through processing facilities and to export destinations in the EU.

    Information Accuracy

    Promotes third-party verification. Participating companies are required to comply with chain of custody and legality requirements that include specifications for verification.

    Legality

    Compiles legality checklists against which it assesses gaps in the legality of identified supply chains in producer countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia; it offers technical guidance to companies to fill such gaps and to achieve third-party verification of legality. Country legality checklists are developed based on international legality requirements (e.g., Smartwood, etc.) and in-country draft or generic legality standards, when available.

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  • UK Timber Trade Federation Responsible Purchasing Policy

    Management system compliant with UK central government requirements for legality and sustainability.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Timber Trade Federation

    +44 (0) 20 78 39 18 91 ttf@ttf.co.uk www.ttf.co.uk

    Traceability

    Provides assistance to members to evaluate the supply chain of their products, the levels of risk of their suppliers and country of origin for their products.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides assistance and guidance to its members to verify compliance with the Federation’s purchasing policy, as well as with UK central government sustainability and legality procurement requirements. Members are expected to complete annual management reports, which are evaluated by an independent auditor to assess compliance with the Federation’s responsible purchasing policy.

    SFM

    Provides guidance and advice to its members to evaluate compliance with sustainability requirements of the UK central government procurement policy. Members must not trade wood from forests being converted to plantations or non-forest land uses.

    Unique Forest Values

    Members must not trade wood from forests where high conservation value is threatened by management activities.

    Social Aspects

    Provides guidance and assistance to members to evaluate compliance with legality requirements of the UK central government procurement policy, including compliance with social standards and laws. Members must not trade wood harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights.

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  • Wood for Good Campaign

    The Policy is applicable to wood-derived products, except paper. The Policy is compulsory for all entities of the federal government, and it focuses on wood from sustainably harvested timbers. The definition includes provisions related to traceability, legality, and specific requirements for sustainable forest management certification systems.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    SFM

    Promotes forest certification (CSA, FSC, PEFC, and SFI).

    Pollution

    Measures wood against other construction materials (steel and concrete) through comparisons of environmental impacts in manufacturing processes.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Promotes recycling of wood products.

    Climate

    Promotes the use of wood to address climate change; greater use of wood stimulates the expansion of forests, greater storage of carbon in trees and products, recovery of stored energy by burning wood as a substitute for fossil fuels, and reduction of greenhouse emissions.

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  • Belgian Government Procurement Policy

    The Policy is applicable to wood-derived products, except paper. The Policy is compulsory for all entities of the federal government, and it focuses on wood from sustainably harvested timbers. The definition includes provisions related to traceability, legality, and specific requirements for sustainable forest management certification systems.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Federal Public Service Health,

    Food Chain Safety and Environment

    +32 2 524 96 55 http://www.guidedesachatsdurables.be

    Traceability

    Requires that forest management certification systems ensure the traceability of the products through a chain of custody system.

    Information Accuracy

    Requires that sustainably harvested timber is certified by an independent body on the basis of internationally recognized criteria. FSC and PEFC have been approved to meet the requirements of the Procurement Policy.

    Legality

    Requires that wood harvesting complies with national laws and international conventions.

    SFM

    Sustainably harvested timber is defined as wood from sustainably managed forests that has been certified by an independent body on the basis of internationally recognized criteria. FSC and PEFC meet the Procurement Policy requirements.

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  • Timber Retail Coalition

    The Coalition – founded by European retailers Kingfisher, Marks & Spencer, IKEA and Carrefour Group – seeks to raise awareness and support clear and pragmatic regulations and legislation to ensure that timber and timber products in the European markets are legal, responsibly sourced, and sustainable. The Coalition also seeks to raise awareness of other environmental issues such as deforestation and climate change. The European Retail Roundtable serves as the Coalition Secretariat.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe, with global implications

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    European Retail Round Table

    +32 (2) 286 51 22 smancini@errt.org www.errt.org/timber-retail-coalition

    Legality

    Campaigns publicly and privately for legislation and regulation that Coalition members can realistically apply and implement, in order to ensure the legality of timber and timber products in the EU markets.

    SFM

    Campaigns publicly and privately for legislation and regulation that Coalition members can realistically apply and implement, in order to ensure the sustainability of timber and timber products in the EU markets.

    Climate

    The Coalition campaigns on forest-related topics such as deforestation and its impact on climate change.

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  • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating Systems

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    U.S.

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Green Building Council

    + 1 800 795 1747 +1 202828 5110 info@usgbc.org www.usgbc.org

    Traceability

    Promotes the use of locally manufactured materials.

    SFM

    Promotes SFM through the use of FSC certification.

    Pollution

    Promotes the reduction of waste.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Rates the proportion of materials that contain recycled content and the proportion of used materials (e.g. in renovation projects) being recycled, including paper, wood flooring, cardboard, etc.

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  • Green Globes

    Rating standard for commercial buildings.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    U.S.

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    The Green Building Initiative

    +1 877 424 4241 info@thegbi.org www.thegbi.org

    Traceability

    Promotes the use of locally manufactured materials.

    SFM

    Scores whether wood-based products originate from operations that are certified by the American Tree Farm System, CSA, FSC and SFI.

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  • Buying Sustainable Timber – A Guide for Public Purchasers in Europe

    Guidelines for setting up sustainable public procurement systems for purchasing tropical timber, compiled by the Sustainable Timber Action project. The initiative ended in November 2013, and the Sustainable Timber Action project was taken on by the European Sustainable Tropical Timber Coalition (http://www.europeansttc.com/). The guide offers a straightforward procurement model and suggested language for tendering documents.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Sustainable Timber Action Simon Clement, Project Co-ordinator ICLEI - Local

    Governments for Sustainability Leopoldring 3 79098 Freidburg, Germany

    +49 (761) 368 920 procurment@iclei.org http://www.sustainable-timber-action.org/ http://www.europeansttc.com/

    Legality

    Proposed procurement guidelines build on verified legal origin (through FSC or PEFC certification, or by following the UK Government Timber Procurement Policy)

    SFM

    The procurement model is based on sustainable forest management (through FSC or PEFC certification, or by following the UK Government Timber Procurement Policy)

    Social Aspects

    While social issues are not included as mandatory feature of the proposed procurement model, there is a section that explores how social issues can be integrated into the policy.

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  • Madera Legal - Asociación Española del Comercio e Industria de la Madera (AEIM)

    Website hosted by AEIM (the Spanish Timber Trade Federation) providing support tools for forest product companies to comply with the EUTR due diligence requirement.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    AEIM C/ Flora nº 3 28013 Madrid, Spain

    +34 91 547 97 45 aeim@aeim.org http://www.maderalegal.info

    Legality

    The website provides detailed information aimed at companies importing timber to Spain about the FLEGT action plan, the EUTR and other relevant EU policies and directives. The website also includes information about CITES, the timber species listed under each CITES appendix, and the contact information for the Spanish CITES authority. Further, the website features a risk tool, which allows the user to learn about timber producing countries. The tool includes information about main product categories sourced from these countries, about legality and governance concerns, and provides a risk rating and recommendations for due diligence steps.

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  • CEPI Carbon Footprint Framework

    Framework provides a comprehensive structure, overview and guidance for individual CEPI member companies to estimate--and communicate with stakeholders--the net greenhouse gas emissions associated with their products (carbon footprint). Evaluation of carbon footprint is based on 10 elements throughout the products’ supply chain.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Confederation of European Paper Industries

    +32 2 627 4928 mail@cepi.org www.cepi.org

    Traceability

    First two elements of the framework evaluate carbon sequestration and storage in forests, and promote maintaining the lands forested. Encourages members to estimate (i) changes in carbon stocks and link them to specific products, and (ii) carbon stored in their products.

    Information Accuracy

    Promotes the use of recognized standards in the evaluation of the carbon footprint including official standards, such as ISO guidelines for life cycle assessments and the Carbon Trust. It provides guidance about stakeholder-supported resources such as EPAT, WRI/WBCSD’s Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol and the Paper Profile.

    SFM

    Promotes the maintenance of lands forested and emphasizes on the renewability of forest products.

    Forest Conversiony

    Pollution

    Provides guidance in the assessment of fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions in the manufacturing process. Inclusion in the evaluation of other greenhouse gas emissions is left at the discretion of the company.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Provides guidance in the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions generated by producing wood fiber and recycled fiber.

    Climate

    Framework provides a structure and guidance for individual CEPI membercompanies to estimate – and communicate with stakeholders – the net greenhouse gas emissions associated with their products (carbon footprint). Evaluation of carbon footprint is based on 10 elements throughout the supply chain: carbon sequestered in forests and stored in forest products, emissions in transportation, manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal. Highlights the renewability of forests and the capacity of forests and forest products to sequester and store carbon.

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  • Environmental Paper Assessment Tool V.2.0.

    Comprehensive, online decision-support tool to facilitate direct dialogue and collaboration between producers and buyers on various issues; allows users to evaluate trade-offs in purchasing decisions.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global, but primarily U.S.and Canada

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    Rates percentage of new fiber input that can be traced back to its origin to the forest management unit. Allows users to view individual companies’ part of the final product.

    Information Accuracy

    Rates degree of verification. It also rates whether a company has EMS, monitoring programs and procedures to manage negative impacts on communities.

    Legality

    Rates compliance of paper-making facilities with international labor, human and health conventions.

    SFM

    Rates fiber from operations certified under CSA, FSC, PEFC, SFI and other national and international certification systems.

    Unique Forest Values

    Measures the extent to which paper producers and their fiber suppliers identify and manage fiber from sensitive forests. Criteria for sensitive forests include biodiversity, viable natural species populations, rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems, ecosystem services, subsistence needs and critical cultural values.

    Social Aspects

    Rates mill systems for ensuring worker safety and health, engagement with stakeholders, and public disclosure of indicators covered by EPAT.

    Pollution

    Rates minimization of impacts on water, air, soil and climate; rates release of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total particulate matter, mercury, absorbable organic halogens, total suspended solids, carbon dioxide, as well as solid waste, total suspended solids and oxygen demand per unit of finished product and by types of mills.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Rates the percentage of pre- and post-consumer fiber, as well as the use of agricultural residues.

    Climate

    Rates the CO2 emitted to the air per unit of product, as well as efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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  • Environmental Paper Network

    A network of organizations providing information and guidance on various aspects of paper. Information and guidance is based on a common framework (common vision) for environmental and social sustainability in the production and consumption of pulp and paper products. The Network maintains and promotes various internet-based applications where its environmental and social goals are evaluated, and where guidance and practical tools for paper purchasers are provided. EPN manages the Paper Calculator, an online tool to quantify and compare the environmental impacts of 13 paper choices based on the use of recycled content and source reduction.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global, but primarily U.S.and Canada

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related Chapters

    Contact Details

    Environmental Paper Network

    +1 828 251 8558 info@environmentalpaper.org www.environmentalpaper.org

    Traceability

    Promotes the use of credible chain of custody tracking systems to identify the origin of fiber sources, as well as mechanisms to report results. Provides tracking forms.

    Information Accuracy

    Promotes fiber that comes from FSC certified forest operations and accurate carbon footprint accounting.

    Legality

    Rates compliance of paper-making facilities with international labor, human and health conventions.Rates compliance of paper-making facilities with international labor, human and health conventions.

    SFM

    Seeks to end the clearing of natural forest ecosystems and the conversion of these forests into plantations for paper fiber. Seeks to reduce geographically disproportionate and wasteful consumption of paper. Discourages the use of GMOs, and promotes sourcing from FSC certified forest operations.

    Unique Forest Values

    Seeks to end the use of wood fiber from endangered forests. Provides a definition of endangered forests and an overview.

    Social Aspects

    Provides information and examples of social impacts on aspects such as land claims, FPIC, emissions of pollutants and economic impacts. Provides guidance and recommendations, and showcases best and worst practices.

    Pollution

    Seeks to minimize impacts on water and air throughout the entire paper supply chain; promotes the use of chlorine-free paper and provides information about different bleaching processes. EPN’s Paper Calculator estimates emissions of various air and water pollutants depending on the paper grade and percentage of recycled content per ton, as entered by the user.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Seeks to eliminate the production of papers manufactured solely using virgin fiber and maximize post-consumer fiber content in all paper types. Provides information about the benefits of using recycled fiber. EPN’s Paper Calculator estimates environmental impacts and changes in wood usage based on the paper grade and percentage of recycled content used. Provides detail guidance about impacts and implications of using recycled content.

    Climate

    Addresses climate change through promoting sustainable forest management, shifting sourcing from endangered forests, reducing use of natural resources in general, and supporting paper recycling. Promotes accurate carbon footprint accounting. EPN’s Paper Calculator estimates CO2 emissions depending on the paper grade and percentage of recycled content per ton. It also estimates methane emissions for end-of-life.

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  • New Zealand Government Paper Buyers Guidance

    Provides general overview of key issues and practical guidance for New Zealand paper buyers in selecting their products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    New Zealand, with global implications

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    New Zealand Ministry for the Environment

    govt3@mfe.govt.nz www.mfe.govt.nz

    Traceability

    Information Accuracy

    Legality

    Verification methodology provides five options to verify compliance with legality requirements. Options include combinations of forest certification systems, ecolabels, chain of custody certificates and self declarations.

    SFM

    Verification methodology provides five options to verify compliance with sustainability requirements. Options include combinations of forest certification systems, ecolabels, chain of custody certificates and self declarations.

    Pollution

    Recognizes the use of ecolabels and self declarations as evidence to verify that products meet bleaching requirements.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Accepts the use of forest certification systems as well as other ecolabels, self declarations and independent third-party certification as evidence that products meet recycled content requirements.

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  • Paper Profile

    Voluntary system to provide information to the consumer about various environmental parameters of specific paper products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe/Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Finnish Paper Engineers’ Association

    +358 (9) 132 6688 info@papereng.fi www.papereng.fi

    Traceability

    Provides information on how the origin of wood fiber is documented and whether the mill receives wood from certified forests.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides information on whether or not a mill receives wood from certified forests, and the certification systems used. It also includes a description of certified environmental management systems.

    SFM

    Provides information on whether or not the mill receives wood from certified forests, and under which certification systems.

    Pollution

    Provides a summary of air, water and solid emissions in pulp and paper production, including: chemical oxygen demand, absorbable organic halogens, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, as well as solid waste.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Includes a summary of recycled content.

    Climate

    Provides information about the total amount of energy procured, possible energy surplus and the CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and peat.

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  • Two Sides

    Two Sides is an initiative of a number of companies from the graphic communications supply chain. The initiative includes actors involved in forest, pulp, paper, inks and chemicals, and printing and publishing industries. The objective of the initiative is (i) to promote the responsible production and use of print and paper products; and (ii) to make information about industry sustainability and performance available to all stakeholders.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe, U.S. and Canada

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    The initiative provides general information about supply chains for printed products, from the forests to the final product.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides general information and links to FSC and PEFC in the UK.

    Pollution

    The initiative provides links, documents and case studies related to air and water emissions in the paper making process.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    The initiative provides links, documents and case studies related to paper recycling.

    Climate

    The initiative provides links, documents and case studies related to CO2 emissions due to timber harvesting and the paper making process.

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  • World Wildlife Fund Guide to Buying Paper

    Companion to WWF Paper Scorecard. Provides guidance on various issues and showcases examples of companies taking action on issues covered.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    WWF International

    +41 (0)22 364 91 11 www.panda.org/paper/toolbox

    Traceability

    Promotes the use of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and third -party verification; showcases a company tracking supply chain.

    Information Accuracy

    Promotes the use of EMS and third-party verification.

    Legality

    Promotes the avoidance of illegal and other un acceptable sources. Promotes forest certification as a means to avoid sourcing raw materials harvested through illegal practices.

    SFM

    Provides background information about SFM and links to additional resources; promotes forest certification as means to avoid sourcing raw materials from areas that have been converted; showcases company sourcing certified materials.

    Unique Forest Values

    Promotes the avoidance of illegal and other unacceptable sources. Promotes forest certification as a means to avoid sourcing raw materials harvested from high conservation value forests.

    Social Aspects

    Promotes the avoidance of illegal and other unacceptable sources. Promotes forest certification as means to avoid sourcing raw materials harvested in violation of customary rights.

    Pollution

    Provides background information about pollution and most notable pollutants. Promotes the use of EMS by forest-producing companies to improve environmental performance, and promotes the use of TCF paper.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Provides background information and advice about increasing use of recycled fiber. Showcases examples of companies using recycled fiber.

    Climate

    Provides background information; promotes reduction of CO2 emissions and showcases companies reducing CO2 emissions.

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  • World Wildlife Fund Paper Scorecard

    Scoring system for paper.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    WWF International

    +41 (0)22 364 91 11 www.panda.org/paper/toolbox

    Traceability

    Rates percentage of fiber from certified sources.

    Information Accuracy

    Rates fiber from certified operations as well as manufacturing operations that implement EMS.

    Legality

    Rates percentage of fibers that are certified to avoid the potential inclusion of fiber from unwanted sources.

    SFM

    Rates percentage of FSC certified fiber.

    Unique Forest Values

    Provides safeguards to avoid potential inclusion of unwante d sources of fiber, in line with FSC Controlled-Wood Standard.

    Forest Conversion

    Social Aspects

    Rates safeguards to avoid potential inclusion of unwanted sources of fiber, aligned with the FSC Controlled-Wood Standard.

    Pollution

    Rates safeguards to avoid potential inclusion of unwanted sources of fiber, aligned with the FSC Controlled-Wood Standard.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Rates and promotes the use of post -consumer recycled fiber.

    Climate

    Provides safeguards to avoid potential inclusion of unwante d sources of fiber, in line with FSC Controlled-Wood Standard.

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  • World Wildlife Fund Tissue Scoring

    Rating system to assess tissue paper sourcing.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    WWF International

    +41 (0)22 36491 11

    Traceability

    Rates the implementation of transparent process(es) for the systematic tracking of materials, in order to compile evidence to ensure that the origin of commodities traded and/or processed is known.

    Information Accuracy

    Rates the systematic tracking of paper-based materials, as well as whether tracking is monitored and independently verified. Rates companies’ co mmitment to implementing an EMS and making such commitments publicly available. Progress towards environmental and social policies should be reported through an annual corporate/environmental responsibility report.

    Legality

    Scoring criteria include clear policies aimed at eliminating all raw materials from illegal and controversial sources.

    SFM

    Rates companies’ commitment to eliminate all sourcing of materials from the conversion of natural forests. Gives preference for buying wood from FSC certified plantations, and companies committed to improvement of management that enhances biodiversity in plantations and in the adjacent areas. Scoring criteria also considers whether or not companies have a commitment to make stepwise progress towards certification.

    Unique Forest Values

    Rates whether companies have a policy to eliminate all raw materials from controversial sources, including forests of high biodiversity value.

    Social Aspects

    Rates whether a company has a clear policy to eliminate all raw materials from controversial sources, including sourcing from forests where the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples are compromised.

    Pollution

    Rates whether a company has a vision and targets for the production process with specific commitments to reduce/eliminate emissions of various substances including carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds, total suspended solids, phosphorous, nitrogen, biological and chemical oxygen demand, and absorbable organic halogens, as well as the reduction of solid and hazardous waste to landfill. It also rates commitments to ongoing research and development into cleaner production and transportation technologies.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Rates companies’ specific commitments to maximize the use of post -consumer recycled content and optimize the use of virgin fiber.

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  • Publisher’s Database for Responsible Environmental Paper Sourcing (PREPS)

    A joint initiative from twenty-three publishers to promote responsible paper supply chains. In 2012, PREPS membership was also opened to printers. PREPS has developed a database focusing on various aspects of the pulp and paper manufacturing processes, the forests from where the raw materials originate, as well as CO2 emissions and water use at the paper mill level. Members interested in adding new information to the database must ask the PREPS Secretariat, and PREPS will contact the mills directly and ask for technical specifications and forest source information. The information is organized by paper grades and mills. Paper grades are graded according to a PREPS Grading System based on the recycled content of the paper, whether or not is certified, whether or not the source or origin is known and if there are risks associated with that origin. The Grading System does not account for CO2 emissions or water consumption.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Publisher’s database for Responsible Environmental Paper Sourcing (PREPS)

    info@prepsgroup.com http://prepsgroup.com/home.phpx

    Traceability

    Paper and Forest Sources grading includes adherence to certification and labeling schemes, including FSC and PEFC.

    Information Accuracy

    Accepts FSC and PEFC as guarantee that wood and wood products certified under these systems come from verifiable legal origin. Paper samples are also tested based on the trans-shipment risk of the country where it is manufactured. The PREPS Grading System also recognize paper that is certified by another recognized certification scheme, or if comes from a low to high risk source (accounts for lower scores).

    Legality

    Requires that wood comes from verifiable legal forest management, initially as verified by FSC and PEFC.

    SFM

    Accepts FSC and PEFC as a guarantee that wood comes from areas that are managed sustainably.

    Unique Forest Values

    Requires that wood does not comes from a low risk country, as defined by the Country Forest Risk Tool developed by PREPS, and does not originate from within a WWF-defined Ecoregion. The Forest Risk Tool has three separate stages 1) Country risk assessment (assesses the risk of illegal logging, conversion, and the rate of forest loss occurring within a particular country) 2) Specific Eco-Region assessment (includes the WWF list terrestrial eco-regions to determine particular areas with high conservation value) 3) Importing country risk assessment (looks at whether a country imports a significant amount of wood from those countries listed as HIGH RISK in the initial Country Risk Assessment).

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Includes information on the extent that paper is made from recycled material in PREPS Grading System.

    Climate

    Members track information on fossil fuel CO2 emissions by paper mills based on direct reporting from paper mills; however, this information is not a factor in the PREPS Grading System.

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  • Consumer Goods Forum Guidelines for Pulp, Paper & Packaging

    The Pulp, Paper & Packaging Guidelines are intended to assist companies in the development of their own policies for sourcing pulp, paper and packaging and offer an number of recommendations on how to get there. The guidelines are not mandatory, but instead provide voluntary guidance. The guidelines propose a three-pronged approach to eliminating controversial sources from supply chains: 1) Develop sourcing policies that avoid controversial sources of pulp, paper and packaging contributing to deforestation. 2) Verify supply from high priority countries has low risk of controversial sources contributing to deforestation. 3) Disclose company policies, goals and progress to avoid controversial sources of pulp, paper and packaging contributing to deforestation in their individual supply chains.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    The Consumer Goods Forum

    Sustainability – Climate Change and Waste Streams

    Sabine Ritter, Executive Vice President

    22/24 rue du Gouverneur Général Eboué

    92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux

    France

    +33 1 82 00 95 95 sustainability@theconsumergoodsforum.com

    Traceability

    The guidelines recommend various means to improving traceability as a key step towards transparency: Documenting the legality of a source, using wood with chain of custody certification, and sourcing wood from certified sustainably managed forests

    Legality

    The Consumer Goods Forum Guidelines suggest the verification of legal sourcing by third-party inspection in high-priority countries (as defined in the guidelines), and monitoring in those countries where the risk of sourcing potential illegal timber is high.

    Forest Conversion

    The Consumer Goods Forum Guidelines suggest the verification of virgin fiber sourcing by third-party inspection in high-priority countries (as defined in the guidelines), and monitoring in those countries where the risk of contributing to deforestation and forest conversion is high.

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  • Environmental Footprint Comparison Tool

    An online information-support tool for companies and paper products buyers to weigh and analyze the trade-offs and co-benefits of managing the environmental footprint of papermaking. The tool focuses benefits and tradeoffs of using recycled fiber, water and energy use, and emissions to water and air.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    U.S. and Canada

    Supply Chain Focus

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    National Council of Air and Stream Improvements (NCASI)

    (919) 941-6400 paperenvironment@ncasi.org www.paperenvironment.org

    Pollution

    Provides general overview information about the use of water and energy in the paper-making process, and tradeoffs and co-benefits derived from both reduced water usage and reduced energy consumption, in terms of pollutant emissions. It also provides an overview of impacts resulting from efforts to reduce emissions of specific pollutants, including chlorinated compounds.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Provides general overview information about fiber recycling and statistics about recycling and recovery rates in the U.S. The website also provides an overview of the impacts of using more or less recycled content in manufacturing various paper grades, in terms of water usage, energy consumption, greenhouse gases emissions, emissions to air, water and solid waste, as well as demand for virgin fiber.

    Climate

    Provides general overview information about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the paper-making process, and the role of forests, wood and paper-based products in storing carbon. It also covers the links between GHG emissions and energy usage.

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  • The Forest Trust’s Good Wood, Good Business Guide

    Practical guidance to develop and implement sustainable procurement.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    The Forest Trust

    +41 (0)22 367 94 40 http://www.tft-forests.org/

    Traceability

    Provides advice for companies to identify the sources of their wood (e.g., sending questionnaires, interviewing suppliers, etc). Provides an overview of options for wood tracking, chains-of-custody, and potential issues.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides advice about third-party verification systems, as well as potential issues.

    Legality

    Provides overview definitions of illegal and legal wood, as well as guidance to exclude illegal wood from the supply chain.

    SFM

    Promotes sourcing from verifiable sustainably managed forests. Provides an overview of international initiatives to develop criteria and indicators for assessing, monitoring and reporting on SFM, as well as certification systems. Definition of unwanted wood includes wood from forest conversion projects, dam clearance projects and others.

    Unique Forest Values

    Provides an overview of unwanted wood, includes wood from high conservation value forests, endangered forests, and others.

    Social Aspects

    Provides an overview of unwanted wood, which includes: material from places where harvesting is associated with human rights violations, wood used to underwrite armed conflicts, or wood that breaks UN trade sanctions.

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  • A Buyers’ Guide to Canada’s Sustainable Forest Products

    Uses the WRI/WBCSD 10 key questions framework, to provide buyers with information to reassure them about the social and environmental qualities of Canada’s forest products. Includes sample forest products procurement/financing policy, environmental performance data of FPAC members, as well as additional resources including a glossary.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Canada, with global implications

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Forest Products Association of Canada

    +1 613 563 1441 Ottawa@fpac.ca http://www.fpac.ca

    Traceability

    Assures readers that the origins of Canada’s wood and paper -based products are often well-known and documented, although there are products originating in some areas with less rigorous supply chains; suggests that buyers ask their suppliers questions.

    Information Accuracy

    Discusses trends of Canadian forest companies turning to third-party certification; provides information about the proportion of third -party certified forests in Canada.

    Legality

    Assures readers about the lack of systemic issues in the forest sector that could allow illegal logging in Canada.

    SFM

    Highlights member companies’ efforts and collaborations with stakeholders to improve environmental performance; assures commitment towards forest certification and provides data about the extent of third-party certified forests in Canada.

    Unique Forest Values

    Highlights efforts, commitments and collaborations between member companies and stakeholders to identify and preserve various types of special sites in Canada.

    Social Aspects

    Highlights collaboration and engagement with various stakeholders, such as Aboriginal Peoples, NGOs and research institutions. Introduces member companies’ approaches and principles of corporate social responsibility.

    Pollution

    Provides information showing decline in emissions of pollutants to water and air over the past decade.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Highlight efforts of members to develop reliable sources of recycled content and increase recycled content in finished products. Provides concrete facts to document such efforts.

    Climate

    Highlights efforts towards increasing the use of biomass electricity; increasing the carbon sequestration potential of forests and forest products; and reducing the use of energy, fossil fuels, and greenhouse gas emissions.

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  • CEPI Legal Logging Code of Conduct

    States CEPI member companies’ commitments to address illegal logging. Commitments include: to operate in full compliance with laws; to purchase only wood that is legally harvested; to set up traceability systems to ensure compliance; to document the legality of the wood purchased and build internal staff capacity to implement the commitment.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Europe

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI)

    +32 (2) 627 49 27 11 mail@cepi.org http://www.cepi.org

    Traceability

    Members commit to set up and use reliable verification/tracking systems and use third-party certification chain of custody to document the wood flow.

    Information Accuracy

    Members commit to set up and use reliable verification systems, apply third-party certification of the chain of custody, and EMS.

    Legality

    Members commit to full compliance with all applicable laws related to logging and purchasing wood. Members commit to implement procurement procedures that comply with laws corresponding to the underlying principles of the EMS. The legality of purchased wood is to be appropriately documented; support and cooperation with governments in their action to halt illegal logging is expected.

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  • Danish Government Procurement Policy for Tropical Forests

    Guidelines for purchasing of tropical timber.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Danish Ministry of the Environment

    +45 (72) 54 20 00 sns@sns.dk http://www.sns.dk

    Traceability

    Draft criteria include requirements to track products throughout the supply chain and verification through the certification process.

    Information Accuracy

    Requirements for monitoring and verification are covered through the certification process.

    Legality

    Legality requirements in draft criteria are similar to UK central government criteria for legal timber. Requires that the forest owner/manager hold legal use rights, compliance with all relevant laws related to forest management, environment, labor and welfare, health and safety and other parties’ tenure and use rights. Criteria also require payment for all relevant royalties and taxes, as well as compliance with CITES requirements. Accepts CSA, FSC, MTCC, PEFC and SFI as schemes that provide adequate documentation of legality. Accepts alternative instruments to verify legality such as SGS’s Timber Legality and Traceability Verification; SmartWood’s Verification of Legal Compliance. FLEGTlicenses where available.

    SFM

    Draft criteria address seven thematic elements for SFM, including protection and productive functions of forest resources and forest health and vitality. Previous guidelines considered FSC and MTCS (PEFC endorsed) to provide adequate guarantees for sustainably produced tropical wood.

    Unique Forest Values

    Draft criteria includes seven thematic elements against which SFM should be addressed; one of these elements is the protection and maintenance of biodiversity, conservation/along with key ecosystems or habitats and protection of features and species of outstanding or exceptional value.

    Social Aspects

    Draft criteria include seven thematic elements, including maintenance of socioeconomic functions, legality of property and tenure rights, respect for customary and traditional rights, as well as health and workers’ rights.

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  • Dutch Government Procurement Criteria for Timber

    The Procurement Criteria for Timber prefers wood products that are sustainable and legal. If sustainably produced products are not available, they at least have to be from legal sources. To help implement this policy, the Dutch government established the Timber Procurement Assessment System (TPAS). TPAS seeks to provide assurance to national and local government institutions that the wood products they purchase meet the government sustainability and legality requirements. The Timber Procurement Assessment Commitment (TPAC) is a body within the TPAS to provide guidance to assess evidence of compliance. TPAC is also responsible for evaluating evidence of compliance provided by forest certification systems and other verification systems.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Timber Procurement Assessment System

    +31 (0)70 3586 300 smk@smk.nl www.tpac.smk.nl

    Traceability

    Criteria requires evidence that Chain of custody systems are in place in each step of the supply chain. The Criteria also requires that each organization in the supply chain maintains contacts and records of their trade transactions.

    Information Accuracy

    The Dutch government has set up a Timber Procurement Assessment System (TPAS) to assess the evidence of compliance. Forest management certification systems can be used as evidence of compliance, as well as first, second, and third-party verification systems. For certification, TPAC has evaluated a number of systems. As of November 2010, FSC and PEFC, except MTCS, are accepted as evidence of compliance with the Dutch procurement policy.

    Legality

    Criteria includes compliance with relevant international, national and/or regional/local legislation and regulations. In particular, the Criteria highlight the following: legal rights to use forests, respect and payment of taxes, fees and royalties, compliance with forest management laws and regulations (including international agreements such as CITES), and respect of indigenous and local tenure and use rights.

    SFM

    The Criteria includes principles and criteria to maintain and enhance biodiversity, including the protection of special forests (see Question 4), as well as protected and endangered species. The Criteria does not accept wood from converted areas, except when conversion occurs under justified exceptional circumstances such as a natural disaster. The Criteria accepts wood from plantations if they were established before 1997, and if at least 5% of the plantation is allowed to re-grow as natural forests. The Criteria prefer plantations made up of native species, and it does not accept genetically modified organisms. The Criteria requires that forest management maintains and, to the degree possible, enhances the vitality of the forests in terms of protection of soil and water resources, use of fires, and use of reduced-impact logging. The Criteria also requires that the SFM is implemented through a system that includes periodic monitoring, expert knowledge, and stakeholder involvement.

    Unique Forest Values

    Requires that areas of high ecological value and representative of the forest types that occur within the forest management unit are identified, inventoried and protected.

    Social Aspects

    The Criteria requires that the interests of directly and indirectly involved stakeholders should be taken into account. Specifically, the Criteria requires that tenure and use rights are respected, stakeholders are consulted, and that the forest management plan, and relevant information, are publicly available. The Criteria also includes specifications for safety, health and labor conditions.

    Pollution

    The Criteria requires that avoidable damage to the ecosystem be prevented, by applying suitable methods and techniques for logging and infrastructure building. The Criteria allows the use of chemicals only if the use of ecological processes and ecological alternatives are proven to be insufficient. It does not allow the use of class 1A and 1B pesticides, as defined by the World Health Organization, and or chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Climate

    The Criteria requires that the forest management system at a minimum maintains important ecological cycles, such as carbon.

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  • European Community Green Purchasing Policy

    Policy to promote public green procurement, increase similarities among procurement criteria of EU member states, and provide guidance and advice. Priority products include paper and furniture.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    European Environment Agency

    +45 33 36 7100 http://ec.europa.u/environment/gpp/index_en.htm

    Traceability

    Recognizes chain of custody certificates from FCS or PEFC. It also recognizes EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) licenses from countries that have signed voluntary partnership agreements. For non-certified products, requires ability to trace through the supply chain to the origin.

    Information Accuracy

    Recognizes European Ecolabel, FSC and PEFC certificates as evidence of compliance and verification, as well as any other appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier issued by the manufacturer, or a test report from an independent body.

    Legality

    For paper, core criteria propose that all fiber must come from legally harvested sources; in addition, award criteria should allow to give preference to fiber coming from sustainably harvested sources. The comprehensive standards propose additional award criteria related to compliance with the full set of EU Ecolabel requirements.

    SFM

    Proposes award criteria that promotes products from forests that are sustainably managed for virgin fiber, solid wood and wood-based products for construction, according to PEOLG, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Forest Principles, as well as international SFM Criteria and Indicators.

    Pollution

    Recycled paper should be at least elementary chlorine free. The comprehensive criteria for paper proposes applying the full set of criteria from the EU Ecolabel. Paper must be at least Elementary Chlorine Free; Totally Chlorine Free will also be accepted.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    For paper, core criteria for paper proposes 100% recovered paper fibers. Comprehensive criteria proposes full compliance with the EU Ecolabel criteria or other Type I ecolabel criteria.

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  • FLEGT and VPAs

    The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Plan is the European Union (EU) response to illegal logging and deforestation concerns. The Plan recognizes that consumer countries’ demand for forest products contributes to forest loss. The Plan seeks to (i) develop markets for legal products in Europe; and (ii) establish bilateral partnerships (Voluntary Partnership Agreements, VPAs) with producing countries to build their capacity and support reforms in the governance of their forest sectors, in order to reduce the production of illegally harvested timber. The VPAs also seek to establish and implement tracking and licensing systems (Legality Assurance Systems - LASs) to ensure that only legally produced products enter the European Union.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    European Commission Environment DG

    http://ec.europa.eu/environment/contact/contact_en.htm

    Traceability

    One of the goals of the FLEGT VPA is the establishment and implementation of Legality Assurance Systems (LASs) to ensure and demonstrate the legal origin of the wood. The LASs could be built on existing in-country schemes.

    Information Accuracy

    One of the goals of the FLEGT VPA is the establishment and implementation of Legality Assurance Systems (LASs) to guarantee the legality and reliable tracking of timber products. The LASs include the independent verification of law compliance, and they could be built on existing in-country schemes.

    Legality

    The FLEGT focuses on capacity-building and improvement of governance in the forest sector of producing countries. A key aspect in establishing an in-country FLEGT VPA is to define what constitutes legal timber, based on national laws and regulations.

    SFM

    The FLEGT LASs should be based on national standards for forest management, rooted in the national laws and regulations of partner countries.

    Social Aspects

    The definition of what constitutes legally produced wood in VPA countries should be produced through a multistakeholder dialogue. The definition of legally produced wood should also cover recognition and protection of property rights, especially the rights of forest-dwelling communities.

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  • WWF Certification Assessment Tool (CAT)

    Assessment tool for the evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of certification schemes. the CAT assessments can be applied to all sectors, but so far, WWF has developed the CAT for forestry and agriculture specifically. The tool evaluates both system strengths (e.g. mission, governance, accreditation, chain of custody, etc.) and standard strengths (e.g. legality, workers' rights, biodiversity, etc.).

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    Includes considerations about explicit performance requirements including chain-of-custody. It assesses certification systems’ provisions for the control of chain -of-custody from the forest of origin to the final product.

    Information Accuracy

    Includes criteria to assess the absence of conflicts of interest in a certification scheme’s decision-making process. It also includes criteria and requirements to assess the independence of the evaluation and verification of performance in forest management and the chain-of-custody standard. Criteria and requirements to assess the use of monitoring systems to evaluate overall management, and the social and environmental impacts are also included.

    Legality

    Includes criteria and requirements for assessing compliance with relevant national and international laws, treaties and agreements.

    SFM

    Includes criteria and requirements to assess compatibility with globally applicable SFM principles and continued improvement of forest management. Assesses whether or not certification systems’ provisions for forest plantations ensure that plantations do not lead to the conversion of critical natural habitats.

    Unique Forest Values

    Includes provisions regarding the establishment of plantations, the conversion or loss of critical natural habitats, the mitigation of environmental impacts to conserve biological diversity and other ecosystem services, and the maintenance of critical forest areas and other critical natural habitats.

    Social Aspects

    Includes criteria and requirements for assessing compatibility with globally applicable social principles including: respect for human, indigenous and worker’s rights; meaningful and equitable participation of all major stakeholder group s; and transparency in decision-making and public reporting.

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  • Forest Footprint Disclosure Project

    The Project is designed to create transparency and improve companies’ understanding of the “forest footprint” of their direct operations and the operations they finance. The «forest footprint» focuses on production, use, and trade of key commodities linked to global deforestation: timber, soy, beef and leather, palm oil and biofuels. Every year, a number of companies are invited to disclose information about policies related to the sustainable supply chains for these commodities, and the actions they are taking to manage risks.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Global Canopy Programme

    44-1865-724-333 info@forestdisclosure.com www.forestdisclosure.com

    Traceability

    Companies are asked to disclose information about their ability to trace the commodities to the place of origin, and the steps they are taking to improve and manage traceability.

    Information Accuracy

    Companies are asked to disclose information about public comittmments and policies related to third-party certification systems.

    SFM

    Companies are asked to disclose information about public commitments and policies related to sustainability, sustainable sourcing, third-party certification systems, and deforestation.

    Climate

    Companies are asked to disclose information about public commitments and policies related to climate change.

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  • Forest Industry Carbon Assessment Tool

    An online, comprehensive, assessment tool to estimate direct and indirect (Scope 1, 2, and 3) GHG emissions for the forest products industry. FICAT incorporates elements of the WRI/WBCSD GHG Protocol, it is structured around CEPI’s Carbon Footprint Framework, and it uses data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The tool can be also used to educate users about the complexities associated with estimating GHG emissions of forest products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    National Council for Air and Stream Improvement,

    Inc and the International Finance Corporation

    +1 919 941 6400 www.FICATModel.org

    Traceability

    GHG emissions are estimated throughout the sup ply chain, beginning with the production of raw materials, including emissions associated with land use conversion --if applicable-- carbon stored in products throughout their life span, product manufacturing and use, transportation, recycling and disposal.

    SFM

    Estimates GHG emissions, if applicable, from land use conversions including converting natural forests to plantations and grasslands to forest plantations.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Estimates avoided GHG emissions by recycling products.

    Climate

    Estimates direct and indirect (Scope 1,2, and 3) GHG emissions of forest products throughout the supply chain, including emissions associated with land use conversion, carbon stored in products throughout their life span, manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal. FICAT also allows for incorporating indirect emissions, such as those generated by off-site energy sources.

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  • French Policy on Public Procuremet of Timber and Wood Products

    National forest products procurement policy; required for central government procurement officials; recommended to local authorities.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Ministère de l’Écologie,

    de l’Énergie du Développement durable et de l’Aménagement du territoire

    +33 (0) 1 40 81 83 32 remy.risser@developpementdurable.gouv.fr www.ecoresponsabilite.environnement.gouv.fr

    Traceability

    Requires suppliers to compile and retain information about the country of origin, species and contact details of their suppliers (requirement is mandatory for basic products such as logs, sawnwood, veneer, plywood).

    Information Accuracy

    Evidence of legality or sustainable forest management is required. These guarantees must be obtained through a process that includes third-party verification.

    Legality

    Does not include definition of legality; procurement managers are required to refer to existing tools such as forest certification systems, ecolabels, or the supplying countries that could define which legislation is relevant. Requires compliance with CITES.

    SFM

    Procurement managers are required to refer to existing tools such as forest certification systems or ecolabels. Does not include a definition of sustainability.

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  • FSC Controlled-Wood Standard

    Within the FSC system, a standard to avoid trading of illegal and environmentally and socially damaging wood.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Forest Stewardship Council

    +49 (228) 367 66 26 fsc@fsc.org www.fsc.org

    Traceability

    Includes specifications to ensure the tracking of wood to the country and district level.

    Information Accuracy

    Standard is subject to third-party verification.

    Legality

    Requires wood harvesting to comply with all applicable harvesting laws in the jurisdiction.

    Unique Forest Values

    Requires that wood harvesting does not threaten high conservation value forests. Evidence of compliance is required.

    Social Aspects

    Requires that wood is not harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights.

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  • Global Forest and Trade Network

    Promotes responsible forest management and trade through a step-wise approach toward credible certification.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    WWF International

    +41 22 364 9111 www.gftn.panda.org

    Traceability

    Provides guidance on gathering information and assessing supplier data regarding the origin of wood products. Provides sample questionnaires and advice on setting up supplier databases (White and Sarshar, 2006).

    Information Accuracy

    Provides advice on setting up internal monitoring and tracking systems. Promotes credible third-party certified products.

    Legality

    Provides advice for keeping illegally harvested wood out of the supply chain. Advice includes providing definitions of legal wood, addressing bad or unfair laws, examples of procurement policies, list of CITES listed species, and lists of legal documentation for various countries (see Miller et al., 2006).

    SFM

    Promotes credible certification as a tool for improving forest management. Provides advice on options for addressing land-use change issues.

    Unique Forest Values

    Provides overview information about high conservation value forests, and advice on options to address sourcing from these areas.

    Social Aspects

    Provides information on social issues related to wood and paper purchasing, as well as information on areas where these issues are most relevant (see White and Sarshar, 2006). Requires compliance with ILO convention on indigenous and tribal peoples, and the UN declaration of human rights. Endorses good labor practices through compliance with local and international labor laws.

    Pollution

    Supports procedures for minimizing pollution and impr oving the acquisition, transportation, storage and management of toxic substances. Promotes nonuse/ production of toxic chemicals and compliance with local and international conventions regarding emissions, effluents and wastes.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Provides advice on defining levels of recycled content and systems to certify recycled materials.

    Climate

    Supports efficient use of energy to minimize direct/indirect impacts on climate change, management to improve levels of carbon sequestration.

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  • Green Purchasing Network

    Guidance for green purchasing, including various types of paper products and furniture.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Japan

    Supply Chain Focus

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Green Purchasing Network

    +81 (3) 3406 5155 gpn@net.email.ne.jp www.gpn.jp

    Information Accuracy

    Prefers suppliers that implement EMS to monitor and improve performance, as well as suppliers that proactively disclose environmental information.

    Legality

    Promotes the use of raw materials that have been produced in compliance with the laws and the rules of the regions where they were harvested.

    SFM

    Prefers products using sustainably produced renewable natural re sources, including certified products.

    Pollution

    Prefers paper bleached without chlorine.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Prefers products that are easily recycled and contain high percentages of recycled content.

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  • Japanese Government Procurement Policy

    Guidelines for verification of legality and sustainability of wood and wood products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Japan/Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Forestry Agency,

    Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan

    http://www.maff.go.jp/e/index.html

    Traceability

    Requires that relevant documentation and evidence (e.g., invoices, contract sales, logging notification, etc.) be preserved during definite terms.

    Information Accuracy

    Requires verification of legality and sustainability through various instruments and procedures, such as wood industry associations’ codes of conduct, self-verification mechanisms and forest certification systems. Certification systems that are recognized to meet monitoring and verification requirements include Japan’s Sustainable Green Ecosystem Council, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), the Indonesian Lembaga Ekolabel (LEI), the Malaysian Timber Certification Council (MTCS), PEFC, and SFI.

    Legality

    Requires that timber be harvested in a legal manner, consistent with procedures in the forest laws of timber-producing countries. Legality is a priority for the Japanese government.

    SFM

    Requires that timber be harvested under a sustainable management regime, and verified through various instruments such as forest certification systems (CSA, FSC, Japan’s Sustainable Green Ecosystem Council, LEI, MTCS, PEFC and SFI), codes of conduct of wood industry associations, and self-verification mechanisms.

    Pollution

    Includes specifications for pollutant emissions in the processing of procured raw materials.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Requires specific percentages of recycled content for various solid and pulp-based products.

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  • Mexican Federal Government Procurement Policy

    Within the Purchasing, Leasing and Public Services Law, all federal government agencies should ensure that the origin of the products is known, and that they originate from sustainably managed forests. In addition, the origin and sustainability of the products should be verified by third party auditing bodies recognized by the Ministry of Natural Resources.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Mexico

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Dirección General de Recursos Materiales Inmuebles y Servicios,

    SEMARNAT

    +52 562-80600 www.semarnat.gob.mx

    Traceability

    Timber and wooden furniture products should be third-party certified to ensure that the origin of the raw materials is known.

    Information Accuracy

    Timber and furniture products should be third-party certified to ensure (i) that the origin of the products is known; and, (ii) that the forests where the raw materials originated were sustainably managed. Auditing bodies should register, and be previously approved by, the Ministry of Environment.

    Legality

    Wood of verified legal origin and in compliance with environmental regulations.

    SFM

    Timber and wooden furniture products should be third-party certified to ensure that the forests from which the raw materials originated were sustainably managed.

    Pollution

    Office paper products should be at least 50% Chlorine-free.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    At least 50% of the fibers of office paper products should be recycled or certified.

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  • Standard Practice for Categorizing Wood and Wood-based Products According to Their Fiber Sources

    A voluntary standard to communicate conformance of wood and paper-based products with requirements of different tracing systems, forest management certification programs, and voluntary and regulatory standards related to forest products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global, but available data are initially limited to the U.S.

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    ASTM International

    +1 -610- 832-9500 www.astm.org

    Traceability

    The Standard does not cover, and is not applicable to, materials from unknown sources. Users need to know the geographic origin of the raw materials that go into the product to a level that is appropriate to support claims to consumers.

    Information Accuracy

    The Standard is applicable to non-controversial products of known origin, including SFM certified products, legally-verified products, or products with chain of custody certification. The Standard seeks to provide a framework to help differentiate products in the marketplace, based on qualities and values important to the buyers, and beyond the variability of forestry certification systems.

    Legality

    The Standard is applicable only to products that originate from jurisdictions with low risk of illegal activity, or from controlled wood standards, stair-step standards, legality assessments, or other proprietary standards.

    SFM

    The Standard characterizes sources as “responsible” if controls in place ensure compliance with best management practices to protect water sources. It characterizes sources as “certified” if they are certified to credible forest certification schemes, or conform to the American Society for Testing and Materials’ (ASTM) own standard for the evaluation of forest management plans. The Standard also includes in appendices, for discussion purposes, provisions related to protective forestry practices. Practices including cultivation of exotic species, forest-composition changes, systematic use and reliance on chemicals, and systematic elimination of natural in-growth of native trees cumulatively disqualify a source from being characterized as coming from areas with protective practices.

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  • Sustainable Forest Finance Toolkit

    The Toolkit is designed to assist and inform forest sector lending and investment decisions, specifically focusing on the production and processing of forest products, and carbon and ecosystem services markets. The Toolkit includes information and specific advice, in the form of questions, for finance officers to evaluate risk, manage investment portfolios, develop forest sector investment policies, and sustainable procurement.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    PriceWaterhouseCoopers LLP UK

    Sustainability and Climate Change

    +44 20 7804 3978 www.pwc.co.uk/sustainability

    Traceability

    The Toolkit provides a general, high-level overview of different sustainability aspects and issues along supply chains of forest products. The Toolkit also provides advice and information for financial institutions to assess and manage risk, depending on the country of origin of the products involved, and the location of operations.

    Information Accuracy

    The Toolkit provides general information about third-party verification systems, including SFM certification systems. It also provides links to SFM certification case studies, and advice about self and third-party performance monitoring, and stakeholder engagement to verify information.

    Legality

    The Toolkit provides a general overview of legality and illegal activities in the forestry sector. It also provides general information about emerging demand-side legality requirements, such as the U.S. Lacey Act and FLEGT. The Toolkit also includes case studies.

    SFM

    The Toolkit provides general information about Sustainable Forest Management; specific SFM topics include: forest conversion, GMOs, exotic species, use of chemicals, forest restoration, and clearcuts. Plantations are covered extensively, as well as information about SFM certification systems.

    Unique Forest Values

    The Toolkit provides general background information about special forests.

    Pollution

    The Toolkit includes information about the relationship between forests and the global carbon cycle, as well as the role of forests in providing ecosystem services such as air quality regulation, provision of genetic resources, and others. It covers aspects such as afforestation, reforestation, Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation, as well as wood-based biofuels.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    The Toolkit provides general background information about recycled fiber streams.

    Climate

    The Toolkit includes information about the relationship between forests and the global carbon cycle, as well as the role of forests in providing ecosystem services such as air quality regulation, provision of genetic resources, and others. It covers aspects such as afforestation, reforestation, Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation, as well as wood-based biofuels.

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  • Sustainable Forestry Initiative Procurement Objective

    Purchasing requirements for wood and fiber under SFI certification standard.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    U.S. and Canada

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Sustainable Forestry Initiative

    +1 202 596-3450 www.sfiprogram.org

    Traceability

    In the US and Canada, requires an auditable system to ensure that the raw material in the supply chain is from responsible and legal sources. This includes landowner outreach, use of qualified resource and qualified logging professional and adherence to best management practices. For sources outside North America, it requires participants to assess and address risk of acquiring materials from controversial sources.

    Information Accuracy

    For the US and Canada, requires participants to have an auditable system to address Forest of Exceptional Conservation Value in harvest of purchased stumpage, implement a policy to ensure that facility inventories and fiber sourcing activities do not compromise adherence to the principles of sustainable forestry, and shall monitor the use of best management practices. Outside the US and Canada, requires participants to ensure their fiber sourcing programs support principles of sustainable forestry, including efforts to promote conservation of biodiversity, thwart illegal logging and avoid controversial sources and encourage socially sound practices.

    SFM

    Participants’ procurement programs are expected to promote SFM principles.

    Unique Forest Values

    For the US and Canada, participants’ shall provide information to landowners for identification and protection of important habitat elements for wildlife and biodiversity, including Forest with Exceptional Conservation Value. This includes program to address FECV in harvests of purchased stumpage. Outside the US and Canada, participants shall ensure their fiber sourcing support efforts to promote the conservation of biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas.

    Social Aspects

    Requires the establishment of an auditable system for compliance with socially sound management practices. In countries without effective laws and law enforcement, participants must assess and address issues related to workers’ health and safety, fair labor practices, indigenous peoples’ rights, antidiscrimination and anti-harassment measures, prevailing wages, and workers’ right to organize.

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  • Swiss Declaration Duty for Timber

    Requires suppliers of solid wood products to provide information about the species of wood and place of harvest. The Duty seeks to promote transparency and enable customers to choose responsible wood products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Federal Consumer Affairs Bureau (FCAB)

    +41 031 322 20 00 www.konsum.admin.ch/holzdeklaration/

    Traceability

    Requires suppliers to provide the place of harvest. In general the information should be posted on the product, close to it, or in the packaging. Initially, roundwood, wood in the rough and some solid wood products are covered. Declaration requirements to other wood products will be extended and clarified as the EU Illegal Timber Regulation is implemented.

    Information Accuracy

    The Federal Consumer Affairs Bureau will conduct various forms of enforcement including surveys at points of sale and documentation audits. The agency might also enlist assistance of private and public organizations in enforcement actions.

    Legality

    With the database on the website of the Federal Consumer Affairs Bureau, it is possible to obtain information about the scientific name and the trade name of the type of wood, necessary for the declaration. In addition, the database provides distribution areas of different types of wood, as well as information on whether the type of wood is protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

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  • The Forest Trust

    Helps link business to responsibly managed forests. TFT members commit to sourcing from sustainable forests that are credibly certified, or TFT forest projects advancing towards credible forest certification. TFT supports companies to establish wood control systems that ensure no undesirable wood enters into their products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    The Forest Trust

    +41 (0)22 367 94 40 http://www.tft-forests.org/

    Traceability

    Identifies origin of raw materials for members’ products and conducts field scoping to ensure basic legality requirements are met as a minimum first step. Provides guidance on procurement policies; assists members to establish chain of custody systems and provides monitoring of such systems.

    Information Accuracy

    Promotes third-party certification. Provides second-party monitoring for members through the supply chain: monitoring members’ progress towards credible forest certification standard levels in forest operations; monitoring traceability of wood in processing facilities; and monitoring wood use and sourcing to decrease that from unwanted sources and increase use of good wood.

    Legality

    Evaluates operations’ compliance with basic legality requirements through field checks. Establishes and monitors supply management systems in forest operations and processing facilities and provides guidance towards specific legal standards.

    SFM

    Promotes SFM by providing technical guidance in forest operations towards credible forest certification. Promotes increased efficiency in forest management through training on reduced impact logging practices.

    Unique Forest Values

    Promotes sourcing from production forests and avoiding wood from unwanted sources such as protected areas.

    Social Aspects

    Trains forest companies to implement all social elements of FSC certification. Encourages business to donate directly to community forest programs.

    Fresh and Recycled Fiber

    Promotes verification of recycled status.

    Climate

    Through the Climate Tree Initiative, promotes conservation of tropical forests to reduce greenhouse emissions and protect climate. Advocates ways to be carbon responsible.

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  • UK Government Central Point of Expertise on Timber Procurement (CPET)

    Provides guidance for compliance with UK central government purchasing requirements for sustainability and legality.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    Provides advice to evaluate supply chains, including contractual requirements. CPET’s framework to assess compatibility of forest certification systems with UK government procurement policy covers chain of custody standards.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides advice on obtaining evidence of compliance and means of verification. CPET’s framework to assess compliance of certification systems with UK central government procurement requirements includes elements of certification and accreditation.

    Legality

    Provides advice and guidance for compliance with UK central government procurement requirements for the legality of wood products. Accepts FSC and PEFC, as evidence of legality.

    SFM

    Provides advice and guidance to comply with UK central government requirements for sustainability, including a framework to assess compatibility of certification systems and other types of evidence. Recognizes CSA, FSC, PEFC, and SFI certification as evidence of sustainability.

    Unique Forest Values

    Addresses issues of special forests to the degree they are incorporated in requirements of certification standards for sustainability.

    Social Aspects

    Addresses issues of special forests to the degree they are incorporated in requirements of certification standards for sustainability.

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  • Sedex

    Sedex is a supply chain management tool that helps companies identify, manage and mitigate ethical risks in global supply chains. As the largest collaborative platform for managing ethical supply chain data, Sedex engages with all tiers of the supply chain with the aim of driving improvements and convergence in responsible business practices. Sedex members can share and manage information related to Labour Standards, Health & Safety, The Environment and Business Practices. Members also have access to a range of tools and reports, including industry specific questionnaires and risk analysis tools. Sedex members benefit from a flexible framework that can be used with any code, standard or company policy. Sedex does not prescribe a specific audit report or reporting requirements, but the organization does provide a publicly available common audit reporting format and methodology (the Sedex Members Trade Audit, or SMETA) designed to reduce duplication of effort in ethical trade auditing.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Legality

    Users can store supply chain information related to ethical and responsible practices covered by International Labour Organization, the Ethical Trade Initiative, or the UN Global Compact. It does not require reporting of this information, but encourages audits which track compliance with local laws and regulations.

    Social Aspects

    Allows members to store, share, and report supply chain information related to international labor standards and health and safety and compliance with laws on these issues.

    Legality

    Provides advice and guidance for compliance with UK central government procurement requirements for the legality of wood products. Accepts FSC and PEFC, as evidence of legality.

    Climate

    Although not required, members are encouraged to analyze and track the carbon footprint in their operations.

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  • SmartSource

    A supply chain management resource that supports forest products purchasing programs by (a) tracing the origin of products throughout the supply chain; (b) evaluating various risks (of illegal logging, unsustainable forest management) associated with the supply chains; and (c) developing and implementing policies and actions to address the risk. Under the latter, SmartSource also provides support to their clients in educating their staff and communicating the policy with suppliers and other stakeholders. Under the upcoming SmartSource360 platform (applicable to a and b above), companies throughout the supply chain will be able provide information directly about the raw materials in the products, including the place of origin. Rainforest Alliance SmartSource program staff reviews and verifies claims made by suppliers regarding source category and country of materials they have sold, through an annual audit process.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    The SmartSource program works with clients to trace the supply chains for specific products to identify, as accurate as possible, the forest source or origin of the raw materials in the product. SmartSource360 allows for full traceability of supply chain.

    Information Accuracy

    SmartSource staff reviews and validates claims made by suppliers regarding the origin of the raw materials in the products and relies on credible third-party certification and verification programs for sources with significant risk of controversial sourcing practices.

    Legality

    Suppliers are required to conduct a ‘risk assessment’ to determine whether wood/fiber source could be derived from illegal harvesting or trading activities. SmartSource relies on credible third party certification and verification programs for assessing legality for sources with significant risk of illegal harvesting and trading of wood and/or fiber. SmartSource staff reviews and validates the legality claims made by suppliers regarding the origin and attributes of the raw materials in the products.

    SFM

    Suppliers are required to conduct a ‘risk assessment’ to determine whether wood/fiber source could be derived from conversion activities. SmartSource relies on credible third-party certification and verification programs and credible, peer reviewed, science-based, and publicly available resources for identifying SFM, potential Land-Use Change and Forest Conversion activities associated with particular supplying entities and countries. Staff review and validate the claims made by suppliers regarding the origin and attributes of the raw materials in the products.

    Unique Forest Values

    Suppliers are required to conduct a ‘risk assessment’ to determine whether wood/fiber source could be derived from areas considered to be HCVFs. Smartsource relies on credible third party certification and verification programs for assessing impacts of forest management activities in forests where High Conservation Values (HCV) exist. SmartSource staff reviews and validates the HCV claims made by suppliers regarding the origin and attributes of the raw materials in the products.

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  • Project LEAF

    A recently launched partnership between Interpol and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Project LEAF (Law Enforcement Assistance for Forests) is an initiative dedicated to combating forest crime, including illegal logging and timber trafficking. Project LEAF seeks to respond to organized transnational forest-criminal activity through an international, coordinated response and in collaboration with national law enforcement agencies. Specific activities involve gathering information and generating relevant analysis, build in-country law enforcement capacity, and providing insights into the way organized crime operates.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    The project is seeks to provide an overview of the extent, primary geographic locations, and routes, of networks involved in illegal logging, corruption, fraud, laundering and smuggling of wood products.

    Information Accuracy

    The project seeks to provide an overview of the extent, primary geographic locations and routes, of networks involved in illegal logging, corruption, fraud, laundering and smuggling of wood products.

    Legality

    The project provides an overview of the extent, primary geographic locations, routes, causes and structure of networks involved in illegal logging, corruption, fraud, laundering and smuggling of wood products. Another objective is to provide support to countries in improving enforcement efforts, and build the capacity for law enforcement by providing training and operational support; a third objective involves developing best practices for combating forest-related corruption. Under Project LEAF, INTERPOL will conduct groundbreaking, intelligence-led law enforcement operations to combat illegal logging.

    Climate

    One of the objectives of the project is to develop best practices for combating REDD-related and forest-related corruption.

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  • String

    String is an online, data recording, tool. The system enables users at all phases in the supply chain to request information about the product from their suppliers. If the data is missing, or if certain validation rules are not met, the data will be marked as incomplete or invalid. Users can generate reports from the data to get a complete picture of the flow of the product throughout the supply chain, and all the available data. By tracing products at a batch level, String makes it difficult for quantities of certified products to be falsified, and as each organization is responsible for their own data there is a clear record of who recorded what and when. String is flexible, and it can be customized to record any data about any type of product. The system has been piloted in a number of industries including timber, textiles and minerals.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Historic Futures

    +44 (0) 1993 886420 http://www.stringtogether.com/

    Traceability

    String users are able to trace any product along the supply chain, from the forest to the finished product. This includes complex and extended supply chains and through the transformational processes.

    Information Accuracy

    Buyers and suppliers use a “handshake” mechanism to confirm that the data already entered by the previous organization is correct before entering their own data. If the data recorded is missing, or in violation of previously established validation rules, the system marks the data as incomplete or invalid. The system has built-in tools for third party auditing.

    Legality

    String makes it easier to identify data discrepancies. The “handshake” mechanism between buyer and supplier means that all actors along the supply chain would be in collusion to enable deliberate falsification of the data. String can be customized to store/request legality/verification documents or certificates.

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  • Enhancing the Trade of Legally Produced Timber, a Guide to Initiatives

    A guide to 127 major initiatives that promote the legal production and trade of timber. The guide provides an overview of the array of initiatives, highlighting trends, gaps, and major opportunities.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Tropenbos International

    +31 317 481416 tropenbos@tropenbos.org http://www.tropenbos.org/

    Traceability

    Provides contextual information on chain of custody and forest certification. The overview includes and profiles tools and initiatives that help track forest supply chains.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides contextual information on chain of custody and forest certification. The overview includes and profiles initiatives that help track forest supply chains, including technology tools.

    Legality

    Provides contextual information on legal initiatives (at global, regional, national, and local scales) that address illegal logging and trade in illegal timber. It includes government initiatives (e.g. bilateral and multilateral processes, trade agreements, public procurement policies) and private sector initiatives (e.g. certification agreements, legality verification systems) among others.

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  • Timber Tracking Technologies Review

    A report that provides a summary of electronic and semi-electronic timber tracking technologies and case studies aimed at providing guidance to timber tracking users, as well as general information on tracking technologies and drivers of its application. Timber tracking technologies and databases allows users to collect data on the source of timber and timber products, and store that information in an accessible and user-friendly database. It also allows users to track information about their supply chains, reduce the risk of illegal or unsustainable wood products entering the supply chain, or to fulfill requirements of forest certification schemes.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Bioversity International / CIGAR

    (39-06) 61181 bioversity@cgiar.org http://www.bioversityinternational.org/

    Traceability

    Provides contextual information on timber tracking technologies that trace forest products through supply chain.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides contextual information on timber tracking technologies that trace forest products through supply chain.

    Legality

    Provides contextual information on timber tracking technologies that trace forest products through supply chain.

    SFM

    Provides contextual information on timber tracking technologies that trace forest products through the supply chain, supporting adherence to forest management certification standards.

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  • Illegal Logging Portal

    Data warehouse maintained by the British organization Chatham House dedicated to illegal logging and associated trade. The warehouse contains documents, presentations, media records and links related to illegal logging and the trade in illegal timber. The web site provides a contextual framework, which outlines major themes related to illegal logging: causes and drivers of illegal logging and trade, initiatives and approaches to address the problem, relevant policies and legislation, key actors and stakeholders, indicators of progress and important sources of information. Information is provided at both the regional and country level.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    Provides and links to contextual information sources on traceability including reports, studies tracking trade flows among regions, and other analyses. It also provides links and information about tools to track forest products, including forestry certification systems, chain of custody standards, standards to verify the origin and legality of the raw materials and technological tools to track materials throughout the supply chain.

    Information Accuracy

    Provides contextual information and links to sources of information about forest certification systems, legality verification systems and technologies to help track and verify the origin and identity of the timber used in the products.

    Legality

    The data warehouse is dedicated to everything related to illegal logging. The web site provides data and links to contextual information on major themes related to illegal logging: causes and drivers of illegal logging and trade, initiatives and approaches to address the problem, policies and legislation aimed at tackling illegal logging and trade, key actors and stakeholders, indicators of progress and important sources of information. Information is provided at both the regional and country level, and it is organized by topic.

    SFM

    Provides and links to contextual information sources on sustainable forest management, forest conversion, and deforestation and land-use change.

    Unique Forest Values

    Provides and links to contextual information sources on various types of special places including high conservation value forests, endangered forests, forests with exceptional conservation value, and others.

    Social Aspects

    Provides and links to contextual information sources related to social aspects and forests. Themes covered include labor and health, social conflict related to illegal logging, public participation and others.

    Climate

    Provides and links to contextual information sources related to climate change and forests. The site has a section dedicated to Forests and Climate Change, and Reduced Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation.

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  • NEPCon LegalSource Programme

    The NEPCon LegalSource Programme offers third party certification for forest product traders, processors and forest managers, confirming that they exercise due care to reduce the risk of sourcing and trading illegally harvested forest products. The LegalSource standard is designed to be compatible with laws that are established or coming into place in the US, EU and Australia, with the aim of excluding material originating from illegal harvesting from their markets. The standard is also applicable to forest operations and companies that export to such markets or simply want to reduce the risk of sourcing illegal forest products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    NEPCon Forest Legality Programme

    +4531587981 cs@nepcon.net http://www.nepcon.net

    Traceability

    The program offers tools, templates, procedures, training to design and implement a due diligence system. Organizations using the LegalSource standard are required to compile and store information about the supply chain detailed enough to allow a meaningful risk assessment.

    Information Accuracy

    The LegalSource program audits and certifies compliance with the participant’s due diligence system.

    Legality

    The LegalSource standard provides a system for organisations to reduce the risk of sourcing illegally harvested and traded forest products. The standard enables companies to apply a precise risk specification in their supply chain and to aim risk mitigating actions at the specified risks.

    Social Aspects

    The legality definition applied in the LegalSource standard includes social issues in so far as they are regulated by law in the country of harvest.

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  • PEFC Due Diligence System

    The PEFC’s Due Diligence System requires participants to establish supply chain control systems to minimize the risk that certified products include raw materials from controversial sources.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    PEFC Council

    +41 22 799 45 40 info@pefc.org www.pefc.org

    Traceability

    Provides specifications for tracking and collecting and maintaining documentation about the origin of the materials.

    Information Accuracy

    Standard is subject to third-party verification.

    Legality

    Requires the implementation of supply-chain control mechanisms to minimize sourcing materials from forest management activities that do not comply with local, national or international laws.

    Unique Forest Values

    Requires that forest management activities maintain, conserve and enhance special forests.

    Social Aspects

    Requires participants to establish systems to minimize the risk of sourcing raw materials from forest management activities that do not comply with local, national or international laws related to workers’ health and labor and indigenous peoples’ property, tenure and use rights.

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  • Carbon Disclosure Project

    The initiative, now part of the Carbon Disclosure Project is designed to create transparency and improve companies’ understanding of the “forest footprint” of their direct operations and the operations they finance. The "forest footprint" focuses on production, use, and trade of key commodities linked to global deforestation: timber, soy, beef and leather, palm oil and biofuels. Every year, a number of companies are invited to disclose information about policies related to the sustainable supply chains for these commodities, and the actions they are taking to manage risks.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Carbon Disclosure Project

    44-20-7970-5660 http://www.cdproject.net

    Traceability

    Companies are asked to disclose information about their ability to trace the commodities to the place of origin, and the steps they are taking to improve and manage traceability.

    Information Accuracy

    Companies are asked to disclose information about public commitments and policies related to third-party certification systems.

    SFM

    Companies are asked to disclose information about public commitments and policies related to sustainability, sustainable sourcing, third-party certification systems, and deforestation.

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  • Global Timber Tracking Network

    The Global Timber Tracking Network (GTTN), coordinated by Bioversity International, is an effort to promote the use of DNA and stable isotopes to fight illegal control. The network is developing a global database of DNA and stable isotope fingerprints of major commercial timber species, which could help reinforce illegal logging laws and certification standards by helping verify that the species listed in the paperwork is legal and labeled correctly. The database will also allow importers and authorities to verify the declared origin of wood and wood products.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Processing/Manufacturing

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Traceability

    The network will create a database of DNA and stable isotope fingerprints for commonly traded species to help identify species and track the origin of wood and wood products along the supply chain.

    Information Accuracy

    The information in the database will be useful for monitoring and verification. Genetic and stable isotope testing can help track and monitors the flow of the timber throughout the supply chain.

    Legality

    Genetic and stable isotope testing can help verify the wood species listed on papers, and thus, support adherence to regulations for timber harvesting and trade.

    SFM

    The information in the database will be useful to help verify compliance with certification standards. Genetic and stable isotope testing can help verify the adherence to certification efforts, which support sustainable forest management.

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  • International Wood Products Association's Wood Trade Compliance Training and Due Diligence Tools Course

    The IWPA day-long training course provides a comprehensive review of legality requirements, with a particular emphasis on the Lacey Act. The course covers compliance strategies, procedures and resources that can help participants understand and develop due diligence management systems. The course website provides a list of course resources for further information.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Retail/Use

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    International Wood Products Association (IWPA)

    +1 703 820 6696 http://www.iwpawood.org/?page=DueDiligenceTrain/

    Traceability

    Course reviews how to develop due diligence systems to comply with the Lacey Act and meet other legality requirements, such as CITES, EUTR and the Australia Illegal Logging Prohibition.

    Information Accuracy

    Course provides an overview of risk assessment tools and forest trade certification bodies. The course website provides a list of resources for further information.

    Legality

    Course provides an introduction to the Lacey requirements, information on CITES requirements, and overview of government resources regarding Lacey, the EU Timber Regulation and the Australia Illegal Logging Prohibition. The course website provides a list of resources for further information.

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  • New Zealand Timber and Wood Products Procurement Policy

    Procurement policy for New Zealand government agencies to address illegal logging and support international sustainable forest management.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    Forest Policy Coordination Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

    +64 (04) 894 0679 www.maf.govt.nz/forestry/twpp/index.htm

    Information Accuracy

    Requires government departments to maintain records that demonstrate verification of the legality of the operations from where products were harvested.

    Legality

    Seeks to ensure procurement of only legally sourced timber and wood products. Provides guidance for implementation through supplier engagement and contract clauses and documentation for the verification of legality; recognizes third-party forest certification as a way to verify legality, as well as legality validation schemes and ecolabels.

    SFM

    Strongly encourages procurement of sustainably produced timber and wood products. Recognizes full third-party forest certification and step-wise certification as ways to identify sustainability.

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  • Public Procurement Policies for Forest Products and their Impacts

    Synthesis and a comparative review of public timber procurement policies around the world.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Information Accuracy

    Reviews verification requirements issued by public timber procurement policies in Belgium, Denmark, France, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand and the UK.

    SFM

    Reviews how different public procurement policies define or address sustainability (e.g., through certification systems, providing definitions and guidance, adopting third-party definitions, etc). Provides an analysis of the impacts of public procurement policies on the forests and forest certification.

     

    Social Aspects

    Reviews how public procurement policies include, exclude or address social aspects (socioeconomic, cultural and spiritual), compliance with fundamental rights, equality, non-discrimination, and others.

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  • The Forest Governance Learning Group

    It is an informal network of national organizations in Africa and Asia focused on forest governance issues, particularly making connections between “those marginalized from forest governance” with decision-makers. The alliance’s goal is to improve governance of forest resources internationally and in the countries where it operates. The alliance conducts focused case studies, develops tools and strategies, and convenes stakeholders for dialogue and exchanges among other things. The Forest Governance Learning Group is active in Cameroon, China, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Vietnam.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Asia and Africa

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Information Accuracy

    Provides contextual information and links to sources of information about forest certification systems, legality verification systems and technologies to help track and verify the origin and identity of the timber used in the products.

    Legality

    Alliance members are involved in in-country policy discussions around legality in the forest sector, including the negotiation of a legal timber partnership agreement between the European Commission and the government of Ghana, and law enforcement actions in Mozambique, and potential social and environmental impacts from a VPA.

    SFM

    Alliance members are involved in in-country policy discussions around legality in the forest sector, including the negotiation of a legal timber partnership agreement between the European Commission and the government of Ghana, and law enforcement actions in Mozambique, and potential social and environmental impacts from a VPA.

    Social Aspects

    Alliance members are involved in in-country policy discussions around social issues including land tenure, social justice in forest operations, forest operations and poverty reduction and community forest management and enterprises.

    Climate

    Alliance members are involved in in-country policy discussions and negotiations around REDD+ often from a social-issues angle.

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  • Forest Legality Alliance

    A public-private initiative to reduce illegal logging through supporting the supply of legal forest products. The Alliance seeks to raise awareness of demand-side legality requirements, produce practical tools to help forest products supply chains to screen out illegal wood, and demonstrate compliance with legality requirements. One of these tools is the Risk Information Tool, which Tool provides information on forest product source countries and species to help buyers make informed sourcing decisions and conduct due care and due diligence (though using the tool does not constitute due care or due diligence). The country pages provide an overview of the country’s forest resources and forest management, laws pertaining to wood processing and trade, production status, in-country contacts, and transparency indicators. The species pages provide information on uses, CITES status, endangered status, where the species can be found, and the associated risks of sourcing the species. The Risk Tool also provides background information on forest legality, including information on forest product importation laws, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), export bans and restrictions, and the due care provision of the Lacey Act.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    World Resources Institute

    +1 202-729-7600 forestlegality@wri.org www.forestlegality.org

    Legality

    The Alliance seeks to raise awareness of demand-side legality requirements such as the U.S. Lacey Act, to produce practical tools to help forest products supply chains screen out illegal wood and exercise due care, and to demonstrate compliance with legality requirements. The Risk Information Tool provides general information on countries and species to help buyers evaluate the risk of illegality of their supply sources.

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  • Global Forest Registry

    The Global Forest Registry is a map-based database, designed to help evaluate the risk of obtaining wood from controversial sources, as defined by the Forest Stewardship Council in the Controlled Wood standard. The definition of controversial sources includes: wood harvested illegally; wood harvested in violation of traditional or civil rights; wood harvested from areas being converted from forests and other wooded ecosystems to plantations or non-forest uses; and wood from forests in which genetically modified trees are planted. The database builds on publicly-available global sources of information for more than 150 countries. The database also includes more detailed information for countries that have completed FSC-approved controlled wood risk assessments.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Global

    Supply Chain Focus

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Legality

    The Global Forest Registry incorporates Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index as a way to assess risk of illegality, as well as relevant national and sub-national data when available. The aspects covered by the Registry, based on the requirements of the FSC’s Controlled Wood Standard, include: prevalence of illegal harvesting; enforcement of logging related laws; existence of effective systems for legal harvest and wood purchases, as well as levels of corruption.

    SFM

    Sustainability aspects covered, based on the requirements of FSC’s Controlled Wood Standard, include: conversion of forest to plantations or non-forest uses; no net loss and no significant rate of loss (>0.5% per year) of natural forests to other naturally wooded ecosystems; no use of genetically modified trees. Among other national and sub-national relevant sources of information, the Registry incorporates information from the FAO’s State of the World’s Forests report to assess risk of forest conversion. Also, all countries are classified as low risk of sourcing commercial wood from GMOs, with the exception of China, where there are GMO plantations.

    Unique Forest Values

    FSC’s Controlled Wood Standard requires that companies must assess if there are high conservation values at the ecoregional level that are threatened by management. To this end, the Registry incorporates the following information: Biodiversity Hotspots; Global 200 Ecoregions; Frontier Forests and Intact Forest Landscapes, in addition to existing information for national and sub-national high conservation value forests assessments.

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  • High Conservation Value (HCV) Resource Network

    The High Conservation Value Resource Network (HCVRN) is a member-based organization that supports the consistent implementation of the High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which helps identify, manage and monitor significant biological, ecological, social or cultural values in a variety of production landscapes. The HCV approach is one of the main requirements of major voluntary sustainability standards schemes, such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), and procurement and investment policies. The HCVRN also provides guidance documents, tools and templates to improve HCV assessments, and licenses lead HCV assessors and monitors the quality of their work over time.

    Geographical Areas of Interest

    Supply Chain Focus

    Global

    Forest production

    Trade

    Related CHapters

    Contact Details

    HCV Resource Network c/o Proforest

    +44 (0)1865 243 439 (UK) secretariat@hcvnetwork.orgg http://hcvnetwork.org

    Legality

    The HCV approach was created to be used in the context of certification, which provides an additional level of assurance. The HCVRN recommends users to follow the Principles of Application of the HCV approach. Users should ensure that their procurement is compliant with international, national and local laws, respects tenure, customary rights and consent of indigenous peoples and local communities, and compliant with laws regulating the use and management of land and water.

    SFM

    The HCVRN advises against converting areas that are needed to maintain or enhance HCVs. Additionally, the HCVRN recommends using the HCV approach as part of a certification scheme where other principles can support environmental good practice.

    Unique Forest Values

    The HCVRN supports the identification of HCVs through assessments and responsible management and monitoring of HCVs in forest landscapes.

    Social Aspects

    Two of the six categories of HCVs are areas fundamental to the needs of local communities and indigenous peoples, and areas of cultural, archaeological, economic, or religious significance. These HCVs should be identified through engagement with local communities and indigenous peoples.

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